Smith, 77, developed a method to evolve new proteins and Winter, 67, used the method to evolve antibodies, which are disease-fighting proteins in the blood.
Using this method, researchers have been able to produce enzymes that catalyze reactions that don't exist in nature. They can also be used to grab and stretch cells, and so distinguish between normal and cancerous cells, he said.
The fruits of their work include the world's top-selling antibody injection Humira for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. It has since gone on to become a blockbuster, with sales previous year of $18 billion. Today, phage display of antibodies can be used to treat diseases as varied as metastatic cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases and anthrax poisoning.
"With the technique, we have developed, laser power has been increased about a million times, maybe even a billion", Mourou said in a video statement released by Ecole Polytechnique.
With this directed evolution, she could show the power behind allowing chance and directed selection instead of depending on human logic and understanding of how genes and enzymes are supposed to work.
"I can alter anything that's encoded in DNA", Arnold-the first woman, and eighth living scientist, to be elected to all three of the U.S. National Academies-told Science in 2008. In a process mimicking evolution, Winter introduced mutations to make antibodies progressively better at binding to their targets. Her tailored enzymes have become important for making medications and other valuable substances like renewable fuels.
Roisin Owens, biochemical engineer at the University of Cambridge, said institutions need to do more to fix what she called the "leaky pipeline" of women dropping out of science for reasons men are less likely to encounter.
She was asleep in a hotel room in Texas when the phone rang. "I breed molecules", Arnold told Reuters after learning of the award, which she said had come as a complete surprise.
In a short speech, she gave credit to her "inspiring" research team.
He concludes, "Very few research breakthroughs are novel".
After repeatedly screening and mutating those microbes, she could use them to build a more powerful version of a desired protein.
Muna who was part of Dr Honjo's research team explained their work, "The research is revolutionary, as it deals with the possibility of the patient's own body attempting to fight against cancer cells without harming itself in the process".
The woman was receiving his then-experimental antibody treatment. Winter's aim was to use "phage display" to make new medicines. Chemistry is the third of this year's Nobel Prizes after the winners of the medicine and physics awards were announced earlier this week. Strickland had worked with the third victor, Frenchman Gerard Mourou of the Ecole Polytechnique and the University of MI.
The 2018 Nobel season continues on Friday with the announcement of the peace prize, and wraps up on Monday with the economics prize.