Shortly before the vote, Trump said Kavanaugh "will be a great justice of the Supreme Court".
The near party-line vote was 50-48, capping a fight that seized the national conversation after claims emerged that Kavanaugh had sexually assaulted women three decades ago - which he emphatically denied.
After the divisive decision was announced it caused disruption in the Senate gallery as well as outside causing Mike Pence to call order. Democrats hope that the roll call, exactly a month from elections in which House and Senate control are in play, will prompt infuriated women and liberals to stream to the polls to oust Republicans. Joe Manchin, D-WV, to vote, a protester yelled, "History is watching".
His promotion to the Supreme Court also stands as a demoralising defeat for Democrats who had battled hard to block the 53-year-old judge at all costs. The vote came the day after a fascinating and horrifying testimonies by both Kavanaugh and Dr. Ford before the committee.
She added: "We will carry that anger into the election. Women will not forget this".
Trump, flying to Kansas for a political rally, flashed a thumbs-up gesture when the tally was announced and praised Kavanaugh for being "able to withstand this frightful, terrible attack by the Democrats". Two other women also came forward with sexual misconduct allegations against Kavanaugh. Yet, while progressives may have hated the idea of Kavanaugh on the court, Trump and his advisers knew that to key parts of his constituency, evangelical Christians and conservatives, he would literally be seen a gift from heaven. "Big day for America!" he tweeted.
Even as Kavanaugh took his oath of office Saturday evening in a quiet private ceremony, not long after the narrowest Senate confirmation in almost a century and a half, protesters chanted outside the court building across the street from the Capitol.
An FBI investigation with limited scope followed the hearing and after presenting its findings, the Senate judiciary committee gave the go ahead for a confirmation vote.
Bob Stefanowski, the Republican candidate for governor, said that "allegations of sexual assault must absolutely be taken seriously and victims deserve to be treated with respect" and that any nominations he makes to the state's courts will be people "who are highly qualified and have demonstrated outstanding moral character". And it was fought against the backdrop of the #MeToo movement and Trump's unyielding support of his nominee and occasional mocking of Kavanaugh's accusers.
Earlier in the afternoon, dozens broke through barriers and climbed the Capitol steps.
A total of 164 people were arrested according to U.S. Capitol Police. Hundreds of other demonstrators watched from behind barricades.
Protesters then moved to mass on the Supreme Court steps, chanting: "We believe survivors", while some banged on the doors. But she also said the Federal Bureau of Investigation had found no corroborating evidence from witnesses whose names Ford had provided. "We still have in this country certain fundamental principles, due process, fairness, a presumption of innocence", she said.
Joe Manchin is facing a hard re-election campaign in West Virginia, a traditionally Republican state that Mr Trump won by a landslide.
When Sen Jeff Flake of Arizona cast his vote in favour of Mr Kavanaugh, one protester shouted: "You're a coward Flake, a total coward".
Before the sexual accusations grabbed the Senate's and the nation's attention, Democrats had argued that Kavanaugh's rulings and writings as an appeals court judge had raised serious concerns about his views on abortion rights and a president's right to bat away legal probes.