Allison and Tasuku Honjo Win 2018 Nobel Prize In Physiology or Medicine

Allison and Tasuku Honjo Win 2018 Nobel Prize In Physiology or Medicine

American James Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine on Monday for game-changing discoveries about how to harness and manipulate the immune system to fight cancer.

The joint award to Allison and Honjo was given "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation", the Nobel committee said.

Allison, a professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, studied a protein that functions as a brake on the immune system.

Honjo, of Kyoto University, discovered a new protein, the ligand PD-1, which also acted as a brake on immune cells.

Researchers working under the direction of Allison and Honjo discovered methods of removing constraints on "T cells" that fight invaders by modulating immune responses.

Whereas both proteins have proven to be effective targets for treating different types of cancer, PD-1 has shown stronger results for the so-called immune checkpoint therapy, according to the Nobel Prize Foundation.

Allison, whose mother died of lymphoma, built on that research over the next 40 years, mostly in California and in Texas, where he is now chair of immunology at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. For many scientists, he said, a driving motivation "is simply to push the frontiers of knowledge".

Speaking to NPR in 2016, Allison said in his experiments on mice with cancer, he tinkered with one key molecule on the outside of T cells in the rodent's immune system.

Charles Swanton, chief clinician at the charity Cancer Research UK, said the scientists' work had revolutionised cancer and immunotherapy.

Research by Allison's team has meanwhile led to the development of a monoclonal antibody drug, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for the treatment of melanoma.

"In some patients, this therapy is remarkably effective", Jeremy Berg, editor-in-chief of the Science family of journals, told The Associated Press.

Therapy developed from Honjo's work led to long-term remission in patients with metastatic cancer that had been considered essentially untreatable, the Nobel Assembly said. The economics laureate, which is not technically a Nobel but is given in honor of Alfred Nobel, the prizes' founder, will be announced next Monday.

Last year, U.S. geneticists Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young were awarded the medicine prize for their research on the role of genes in setting the "circadian clock" which regulates sleep and eating patterns, hormones and body temperature.



Related Posts

'Vamos!': Garcia firing up Europe at Ryder Cup
He was serenaded with cries identifying him by the Captain America moniker in practice rounds and partnered with Tiger Woods . Given the narrow fairways and punishing rough, it was clear the 48-year-old wouldn't be much help to the Americans.

Return of Syrian refugees a 'priority', Russia's Lavrov tells UN
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov on Friday warned against attempts to contain Iran. US National Security Advisor John Bolton called Moscow's decision a "major mistake".

Krishna Raj Kapoor’s funeral: Bollywood celebs arrive to pay their last respect
Actors such as Aamir Khan, Karan Johar, Anupam Kher and Soha Ali Khan posted tributes for Krishna Raj Kapoor on social media . After Raj Kapoor's death in 1988, she held the entire family together and was exclusively responsible for her 5 kids.

Death toll surges over 800 in Indonesia quake
Aftershocks rocked the coastal city until Saturday afternoon following the massive quake on Friday, which triggered the tsunami . The town of Mamuju was also severely affected but now impossible to access due to damaged roads and disrupted telecommunications.

Boeing awarded $9.2B contract for Air Force T-X trainer aircraft
On both the KC-46 and T-X, Boeing's hopes of recouping its costs depend on further overseas sales after the USA military decision. Lockheed Martin partnered with Korea Aerospace Industries to offer the T-50A, an offshoot of KAI's T-50 trainer.

Gwyneth Paltrow Proudly Shows Her & Husband Brad Falchuk's Wedding Rings Off
The wedding reportedly included guests such as Jerry Seinfeld , Robert Downey Jr ., Cameron Diaz and husband Benji Madden . The newlyweds first met in 2010 on the set of " Glee ", which Falchuk co-created and on which Paltrow guest starred.

Tesla Shares Soar After Elon Musk's SEC Settlement
As part of a settlement of charges that Mr Musk misled investors, he will no longer sit at the head of the boardroom table. Tesla is seeking to ramp up production of its Model 3, the mass-market vehicle seen as a key to the automaker's future.

Jefferson Airplane Co-Founder, Singer And Songwriter Marty Balin Dead At 76
The Airplane was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2016. Balin proved he still had his mojo with the major hit " Miracles " on the "Red Octopus" album in 1975.

Blasey Ford says '100 percent' certain Kavanaugh assaulted her
The White House confirmed that Trump watched the testimony aboard Air Force One as he returned to Washington from NY . Through a campaign spokesman, Sununu said the Senate "should think carefully about the next steps in this process".

Kanye West went & delivered ANOTHER pro-Trump speech
That included a focus on domestic manufacturing and job creation, prison reform and, perhaps, the repeal of the 13th Amendment. Maybe referring to the amendment's exemption for punishment for a crime, West later attempted to explain.

© 2015 ExpressNewsline. All Rights reserved.