Allison and Tasuku Honjo Win 2018 Nobel Prize In Physiology or Medicine

Allison and Tasuku Honjo Win 2018 Nobel Prize In Physiology or Medicine

American James Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine on Monday for game-changing discoveries about how to harness and manipulate the immune system to fight cancer.

The joint award to Allison and Honjo was given "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation", the Nobel committee said.

Allison, a professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, studied a protein that functions as a brake on the immune system.

Honjo, of Kyoto University, discovered a new protein, the ligand PD-1, which also acted as a brake on immune cells.

Researchers working under the direction of Allison and Honjo discovered methods of removing constraints on "T cells" that fight invaders by modulating immune responses.

Whereas both proteins have proven to be effective targets for treating different types of cancer, PD-1 has shown stronger results for the so-called immune checkpoint therapy, according to the Nobel Prize Foundation.

Allison, whose mother died of lymphoma, built on that research over the next 40 years, mostly in California and in Texas, where he is now chair of immunology at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. For many scientists, he said, a driving motivation "is simply to push the frontiers of knowledge".

Speaking to NPR in 2016, Allison said in his experiments on mice with cancer, he tinkered with one key molecule on the outside of T cells in the rodent's immune system.

Charles Swanton, chief clinician at the charity Cancer Research UK, said the scientists' work had revolutionised cancer and immunotherapy.

Research by Allison's team has meanwhile led to the development of a monoclonal antibody drug, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for the treatment of melanoma.

"In some patients, this therapy is remarkably effective", Jeremy Berg, editor-in-chief of the Science family of journals, told The Associated Press.

Therapy developed from Honjo's work led to long-term remission in patients with metastatic cancer that had been considered essentially untreatable, the Nobel Assembly said. The economics laureate, which is not technically a Nobel but is given in honor of Alfred Nobel, the prizes' founder, will be announced next Monday.

Last year, U.S. geneticists Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young were awarded the medicine prize for their research on the role of genes in setting the "circadian clock" which regulates sleep and eating patterns, hormones and body temperature.



Related Posts

Four Vietnamese are passengers on plane crash near Papua New Guinea
Airways jet failed after it struck a flock of geese during takeoff from New York's LaGuardia Airport. Except for one passenger reported missing, all the other 46 passengers and crew were safe, it added.

Blasey Ford says '100 percent' certain Kavanaugh assaulted her
The White House confirmed that Trump watched the testimony aboard Air Force One as he returned to Washington from NY . Through a campaign spokesman, Sununu said the Senate "should think carefully about the next steps in this process".

Boeing awarded $9.2B contract for Air Force T-X trainer aircraft
On both the KC-46 and T-X, Boeing's hopes of recouping its costs depend on further overseas sales after the USA military decision. Lockheed Martin partnered with Korea Aerospace Industries to offer the T-50A, an offshoot of KAI's T-50 trainer.

Mark Judge To Cooperate With FBI On Brett Kavanaugh Sexual Assault Investigation
Trump denied that story, tweeting that "Actually, I want them to interview whoever they deem appropriate, at their discretion". Ford has alleged Judge was present in the room with her and Kavanaugh when the nominee allegedly assaulted her.

Iraq 'regrets' closure of USA consulate, Iran rejects 'propaganda'
In his statement on Friday, Pompeo said the United States is working with the Iraqi government to address Iranian threats. On Friday, a senior Iran military leader warned the United States against crossing Iran's "red lines".

Return of Syrian refugees a 'priority', Russia's Lavrov tells UN
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov on Friday warned against attempts to contain Iran. US National Security Advisor John Bolton called Moscow's decision a "major mistake".

Facebook: 'View as' feature opened 50M accounts to hackers
While Facebook says it has fixed the vulnerability, it has not confirmed what information hackers managed to access or steal. Although you will to have to log back into your account, you do not have to change your passwords , Facebook added.

Lindsey Graham Vows "Full-Scale Investigation" Into Democrats' Handling Of Christine Ford's Allegations
Add Supreme Court as an interest to stay up to date on the latest Supreme Court news, video, and analysis from ABC News. He went on to vehemently chastise the Democratic senators: "Boy, you all want power". "This is not a job interview".

The Steelers are now actively trying to trade Le’Veon Bell
But, if a report from the NFL Network's Ian Rappoport is to be believed, we now have an idea of what the Steelers might be asking. The NFL trade deadline isn't until October 30, and the Steelers' phone will be ringing plenty.

Hurricane Rosa off Mexico could bring rip currents to San Diego
Rosa is expected to make landfall Monday as a tropical storm then continue moving northeast, soaking the southwestern US. Croix and Puerto Rico, which was badly damaged by Hurricane Maria a year ago and is still recovering from the storm.

© 2015 ExpressNewsline. All Rights reserved.