It is the first such finding by an Italian court.
A judge accepted the lawyers' case that her university should count her two days off under an allowance for absences related to "serious or family personal reasons".
The academic, who has not been named, took two days off to care for Cucciola, a 12-year-old English Setter, after the dog underwent surgery.
In February, the dog had to have a tumour removed, and in May she needed treatment for laryngeal paralysis, a disease affecting the throat which restricts the animal's ability to eat, bark and breathe.
An Italian woman was granted sick pay for the time she took off while caring for her ill dog, a ruling that could have pets be recognized as "members of the family" in the future, reports said on Thursday.
The argument also hinged on a law which calls for a £9,000 fine or a year in jail for those who abandon an animal to "grave suffering".
Italian League antivivisection (one of Europe's largest organizations for the protection of animal rights) has helped the scientific employee with this case.
LAV president Gianluca Felicetti says in a statement anyone who obtains a veterinarian's certificate should enjoy the same benefit, citing Cucciola's case as precedent.